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Kidney Stones and Causes by Gangi Reddy
Kidney Stones and Causes
(courtesy:-teluguone.com)

The kidney acts as a filter for blood, removing waste products from the body and making urine. It also helps regulate electrolyte levels that are important for body function. Urine drains from the kidney through a narrow tube called the ureter into the bladder. When the bladder fills and there is an urge to urinate, the bladder empties to the outside through the urethra, a much wider tube than the ureter.

What is a kidney stone?

A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in a kidney out of substances in the urine.

How does the stone form?

When chemicals crystallize in the urine, it form a kidney stone. These stones are very tiny when they form smaller than a grain of sand, but gradually can grow over time to 1/10 of an inch or larger. It obstructs urine from draining.

How do people come to know about it?

When the stone sits in the kidney, it rarely causes problems, but when it falls into the ureter, it acts like a dam, As the kidney continues to make urine, pressure builds up behind the stone and causes the kidney to swell and pain.

Kidney Stone

In Some people, chemicals crystallize in the urine and fprm a kidney stone. These stones are very tiny when they form, smaller than a grain of sand, but gradually can grow overtime to 1/10 of an inch or larger.

The three phases of kidney stone:

• Urolithiasis (presence of stones in the urinary tract)-Rarely causes problems

• Nephrolithiasis (Kidney stones)- Size starts in the ureter)-Acts like a dam & creats pressure which causes swell and pain.

The size of the stone doesn’t matter when it sits in kidney but when it falls in ureter it obstructs or prevents urine from draining which causes pain.

Causes

Kidney stones do not have a single, well-defined cause. When the urine contains more crystal-forming substances than the fluid can dilute, crystals can form. It may be caused by:

Heredity: The majority of kidney stones are made of calcium, and hypercalciuria. The predisposition to high levels of calcium in the urine may be passed on from generation to generation.

Geographical location: There may be a geographic predisposition, and where a person lives may predispose them to form kidney stones. There are regional “stone belts,” with people living in the southern united states having an increased risk of stone formation. The hot climate in this region combined with poor fluid intake may cause people to be relatively dehydrated, with their urine becoming more concentrated and allowing chemicals to come in closer contact to form a atone.

Diet

Diet may or may not be an issue. If a person is susceptible to forming stones, then foods high in calcium may increase the risk; however, if a person isn’t susceptible to forming stones, diet probably will not change that risk.

Medications: People talking diuretics (or “water pills”) and those who consume excess calcium-containing antacids can increase the amounts of vitamins A and D are also associated with higher levels of calcium in the urine. 

Underlying illness: Some chronic illnesses are associated with kidney stone formation, including cystic fibrosis renal tubular acidosis, and inflammatory bowel disease.

Symptoms & Signs Colicky Pain 

Colicky pain :  The pain typically comes in waves, with a typical wave lasting 20 to 60 minutes.

Nausea/vomiting: Embryological link with intestine-stimulates the vomiting centre. 

Hematuria: Blood in the urine, due to minor damage to inside wall of kidney, ureter and/or urethra.

Pyuria: Pus in the urine.

Dysuria: burning on urination when passing stones(rare).More typical of infection.

Oliguria: Reduced urinary volume caused by obstruction of the bladder or urethra by stone, or extremely rarely, simultaneous obstruction of both ureters by a stone.

Postrenal Azotemia: The blockage of urine flow through a ureter.

Hydroneprosis: The distension and dilation of the renal pelvis and calyces.

Diagnosis

Clinical diagnosis is usually made on the basis of the location and severity of the pain, which is typically colicky in nature. Pain in the back occurs when calculi produce an obstruction in the kidney.

X-Ray

The relatively dense calcium renders these stones radio-opaque and they can be detected by a traditional X-ray of the abdomen that includes the kidneys, ureters and bladder.

About 10% of stones do not have enough calcium to be seen on standard X-rays (radiolucent stones).

Computed Tomography

All stones are detected by CT without contrast is considered in the gold standard diagnosis test except very rare stones composed of certain drug residues in the urine.

Ultrasound

Gives details about the presence of hydronephrosis (swelling of the kidney)

PREVENTION

  • Take special research homeo medicine for few weeks helps in prevention of further formation of stone.
  • Drink 12 full glasses of water every day.
  • The risk forming a stone can be minimized by avoiding dehydration. Making certain that the urine remains clear and not concentrated ( dark yellow) will help minimize stone formation.
  • Medication may be prescribed for certain types of stones, and compliance with taking the medication is a must to reduce the risk of future episodes.
  • Drinking lots of water helps to flush away the substances that form stones in the kidneys.
  • Take lots of water melon juice.
  • Take Horsegram powder.
  • Take Radish
  • Take lots of coconut water
Category: Fitness FreakLast Updated On: Thursday, March 29, 2012

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